Goucher College 2012-2013 Undergraduate Catalogue 
    Jul 18, 2024  
Goucher College 2012-2013 Undergraduate Catalogue PLEASE NOTE: This is an archived catalog. Programs are subject to change each academic year.

The Curriculum and Academic Divisions

Goucher College is an intellectual community of students, scholars, artists, and scientists. Within an innovative liberal arts curriculum, students can determine the course of study that best suits their intellectual interests and academic goals. They can choose a traditional major, or they can shape their education by combining different fields of study into a double major or interdisciplinary major. The Goucher curriculum emphasizes the value of intellectual engagement, interdisciplinary approaches, information technologies, and global perspectives in order to prepare students to live and work in the world as contributing, ethical citizens. Course work, service options, study abroad, and internships provide students with myriad opportunities to develop intellectually and personally. The curriculum is divided into five divisions that reflect a commitment to merging traditional liberal arts with interdisciplinary study. These divisions are arts, humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and mathematics, and interdisciplinary studies.

Division I: The Humanities

To study the humanities is to study the human condition across time and space, to grasp both the diversity and unity of human cultures. The explosion of information technology and the new internationalism have revolutionized the humanistic endeavor, but its central concern with probing the human spirit remains the same.

This balance between tradition and innovation is the hallmark of the humanities at Goucher. Providing an umbrella for the departments of communication and media studies, English, history, modern languages and literatures, and philosophy and religion, the humanities division emphasizes the critical need to distinguish between the transient and the enduring. Challenging students to become rigorous and creative thinkers, the humanities at Goucher foster an appreciation of the past while furnishing the intellectual and moral equipment to cope with the future.

Sharing human experience requires the ability to communicate effectively. Hence, the humanities offer an arena in which students can sharpen their thinking, writing, and speaking skills. To examine complex situations, to construct a sophisticated and persuasive argument, to marshal appropriate evidence, and to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of other positions: these are the essential skills that the study of the humanities promotes. These skills prepare students to succeed in a wide range of careers and life situations.

Technology increasingly plays a critical role in all forms of communication, and the extensive facilities and resources available to students at Goucher reflect the vitality of the humanistic disciplines. To bring students into immediate contact with other nations and cultures, the Thormann International Technology and Media Center employs satellites, international networking, and a broad array of computer hardware and software. Students can make their own films and videotapes using the campus television studio and equipment.

Another sign of the excitement and energy generated by the humanities at Goucher is the distinguished group of writers, journalists, and intellectuals who have visited the campus in recent years, bringing their unique viewpoints into the lecture hall and classroom. The list includes Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Joyce Carol Oates, Joseph Heller, Gloria Naylor, Grace Paley, Ntozake Shange, Charlayne Hunter-Gault, Horton Foote, Judy Woodruff, Roy Blount Jr., Taylor Branch, and well-known Russian writers Vassily Aksyonov, Vladimir Voinovich, and Tatyana Tolstaya. The Goucher faculty itself boasts a number of nationally and internationally recognized scholars and writers who have made their mark in the humanities: Madison Smartt Bell, writer in residence and National Book Award finalist for his novel All Souls’ Rising; poet Elizabeth Spires; and political historian Jean Baker, whose most recent work is a highly praised book on America’s women suffrage leaders.

Cultural enrichment and global understanding at Goucher are not limited to the classroom. Foreign languages are spoken on designated floors in Froelicher Hall. Students may choose to spend a summer or semester at the University of East Anglia in England, at the Sorbonne in Paris, or at the University of Salamanca in Spain. Furthermore, departments in the Humanities Division have developed a solid network of connections with museums, archives, governmental agencies, television stations, magazines, newspapers, and historical societies in the Baltimore-Washington area, providing students with valuable internship opportunities off campus.

The humanities at Goucher combine a commitment to intellectual integrity, a sensitivity to the variety of human experience, and access to the latest technological developments. A Goucher student may embark on a research project to examine the distinctive character of the Anglo-American world in the 18th century and end up at the Goucher College Library in front of a computer screen with the CD-ROM edition of the Pennsylvania Gazette, calling up the past with the push of a search key. A respect for tradition and openness to innovation: this is how the humanities seeks to extend our knowledge of the human condition.

Division II: The Social Sciences

At Goucher, the social science division includes anthropology, business management, economics, education, international relations, politics and public policy, sociology, and women, gender, and sexuality studies. The modes of expression in the social sciences draw upon the unique qualities of the various disciplines to present material in methods as diverse as mathematical models, statistics, case studies, field work, and literary expression. Goucher’s approach to the social sciences emphasizes global understanding by encouraging students to examine closely the diversity and richness of human cultures. Courses in the social sciences introduce students to one or more of the following:

  • appreciation of the commonalities and diversities in human interaction and in human groups
  • historical and theoretical development of the disciplines
  • methods of inquiry
  • an understanding of the human condition

Goucher’s approach to teaching the social sciences is as wide-ranging as the subject matter and extends beyond the classroom. Washington, DC, Annapolis (the Maryland state capital), and Baltimore, as well as international internships, provide excellent settings for applying the theories and methods learned in the social sciences. Students are exposed to business, government, professional, and social service organizations through guest lectures, mentors, internships, and other contacts. As a result, students develop an awareness of the diversity of experiences they will encounter as they pursue careers or graduate work in their chosen fields. For example, each year Goucher students are able to participate in both the American University’s Washington Semester and the Public Leadership Education Network’s Gender and Public Policy Seminar. These programs allow students to spend either a semester or winter break in the nation’s capital where they do seminar work, internships, and meet with practitioners in many areas of politics and public policy. These programs are coordinated through the Sarah T. Hughes Field Politics Center. The Hughes Center also works to place students in meaningful internships and other settings for experiential learning and facilitates these opportunities by providing financial support. In recent years, Goucher students have interned in such diverse settings as the U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means, the Office of the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, the Sierra Club, the State Department, CNN News, and the Barack Obama Presidential Campaign. The Hughes Center also sponsors public affairs programming and brings prominent political figures to campus. Recent speakers have been Patti Soles Doyle, David Plouffe, Janisse Ray, George Mitchell, Oscar Arias, Alice Rivlin, Mark Shields, and Mary Robinson.

Division III: The Natural Sciences and Mathematics

Goucher has an exceptional record of excellence in the sciences. The Psychology, Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics and Computer Science departments offer diverse viewpoints, theories, and methods for studying science and mathematics. The curriculum is designed to promote scientific curiosity, critical thinking, and intellectual maturity and emphasizes active problem solving in the laboratory. Students engage in theoretical and empirical research to experience each discipline as a scientific process or as an applied science.

Students in mathematics study the abstract properties of mathematical systems, developing their analytical skills as well as an appreciation for the beauty of the discipline. They also explore the numerous applications of mathematics to practical problems and learn how the techniques of mathematics can be applied to solve key problems in other fields, such as biology, physics, and economics.

Goucher faculty combine a dedication to undergraduate education with active involvement in the professional community. This combination affords many opportunities for faculty-directed student research. Students may also benefit from a variety of independent study and field work opportunities off campus. These experiences beyond the structured classroom and laboratory courses contribute to the professional growth and career options for Goucher students. Most graduates continue study for advanced degrees, while others begin careers immediately. Graduates my conduct research, enter a variety of helping professions, or pursue careers in business, education, law, or medicine. The acceptance rate to medical school and graduate programs is well above the national average.

Students in the sciences use well-equipped laboratories, extensive computer facilities, an observatory, and a greenhouse in the Hoffberger Science Building. The Biological Sciences Department labs support work in molecular biology and bioinformatics, computer data acquisition on organismal biology, and field work in ecology. A new phosphorimager adds to laboratory capabilities. In Chemistry, a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, and high-pressure liquid chromatograph are recent additions to the department’s instrumentation. The Department of Physics and Astronomy has a new machine shop, in addition to an observatory housing a radio telescope and a permanently mounted 14” Meade Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope that can be equipped with a CCD camera for deep-sky imaging. The Mathematics and Computer Science Department has a robotic arm, capable of performing a number of programmed tasks, as well as two mobile robots and numerous Linux/Windows workstations.

Division IV: The Arts

Throughout history, the arts have served to illuminate, to inspire, and to record the aspirations and conflicts of humanity. The study of the arts gives students the opportunity to tap into the wellsprings of civilizations, past and present. Participation in the arts provides a wealth of creative experience to both individuals and groups. To an extraordinary degree, students in the arts blend historical, aesthetic, critical, and pragmatic aspects of thought and action.

As a field of study, any one of the arts—art, dance, music, or theatre—offers a student a rewarding route to skilled expression, creativity, and intellectual development; further, it provides stimulating exploration of the forms of artistic expression that have evolved from different cultures. This rich blend of the practical, the historical, and the theoretical is the foundation of the arts experience for liberal arts students.

The Departments of Art and Art History, Dance, Music, and Theatre form Goucher’s Arts Division. The division is dedicated to the study of the arts in a liberal arts context and the exploration of interdisciplinary issues of culture and society. The division encourages the spirit of inquiry, creativity, and analytical thinking, and the curriculum fosters an appreciation for individual and cultural diversity.

Students may major in any of the arts or combine one art with another or with other disciplines. All departments welcome the non-major, and students have the opportunity to study at beginning through advanced levels. Creative interaction between faculty and students from different disciplines has produced exciting collaborations both in the studio and on stage.

The possibilities are numerous, and students can create individual programs or independent projects. Students may choose to focus on the historical and critical study of any one of the four arts. Courses in history and criticism examine the changing definitions and uses of the arts within diverse periods and cultures and explore the philosophical, religious, economic, and political conditions that form the basis of any art production.

Arts administration can be studied as a concentration. This growing field provides students with special courses and excellent off-campus opportunities. Many graduates have gone on to rewarding careers as museum curators, art administrators, and company managers.

The Arts Division is housed in several buildings with up-to-date, professional facilities for teaching, performance, and exhibition. The Departments of Art and Art History and Theatre share the Meyerhoff Arts Center; the Music Department’s spaces are located in the Dorsey Center with the 1,000-seat Kraushaar Auditorium and the 250-seat Merrick Hall; and the Dance Department is located in the Todd Dance Complex, which houses three studios and an alternative theater.

Division V: Interdisciplinary Studies

Goucher’s mission as a liberal arts and sciences college has traditionally included the mandate to prepare students to meet the challenges of the changing face of knowledge and to comprehend a rapidly transforming world. The Division of Interdisciplinary Studies carries on the tradition of developing, integrating, and synthesizing the perspectives of the various disciplines. Areas such as global politics, world peace, intercultural awareness, environmental concerns, advances in science and technology, the growing sophistication in interpretive practices, and the nature and diversity of knowledge and consciousness all speak to the need for academic programs that cross, integrate, and transcend traditional disciplinary boundaries.

At Goucher, interdisciplinary study begins with Frontiers, the first-year seminar, which offers students the opportunity to synthesize a variety of perspectives on a common theme. Other programs, such as cognitive studies, peace studies, American studies, Judaic studies, and the interdisciplinary minors in Theory, Culture, and Interpretation, may lead to individually designed majors and minors. The interdisciplinary programs also enhance areas of emphasis within traditional departments.

The program in Theory, Culture, and Interpretation offers four interdisciplinary minors in philosophy and literature, social and political theory, creative structures, and interpreting cultures. Each minor is designed to use interpretive theory to enhance such traditional majors as English, art, sociology, communication, history, and philosophy. With the courses in these minors, philosophy majors have gone on to pursue graduate studies in comparative literature, and English majors have gone on to screenwriting.

Goucher also offers an individualized interdisciplinary major that balances course offerings focusing on the methods and content of three or more disciplines and culminates in a capstone experience. Recent interdisciplinary majors have been in social justice, environmental studies, and the preservation of American art and culture. Students who choose from the various interdisciplinary programs at Goucher will find themselves not only prepared for challenging career opportunities and graduate study, but also rewarded by the intrinsic richness and excitement of examining subjects, issues, and methodologies from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Interdisciplinary study at Goucher builds upon and fulfills the traditional foundation for liberal arts learning.

The Courses of Instruction

Numbering of Courses

Courses at the 100 level are introductory to a field or discipline. Courses at the 200 level assume that students enrolled in them are already acquainted with introductory or intermediate methods and materials. Courses at the 300 and 400 levels are advanced.

The semester hours of credit for each course are noted in parentheses after the course title. The amount of credit for an internship, unless specified, may be a minimum of three to a maximum of four semester hours. A minimum of 30 hours of experience is required for each semester hour of credit.

Courses applicable to the general education or liberal education requirements are indicated with the appropriate requirement in parentheses. Students may elect a course for which they do not have the stated prerequisites, provided permission is given by the instructor.

Calendar and Time Schedule

The academic year is divided into two semesters of approximately 14 weeks each. At the end of each semester, there is a brief reading period followed by final examinations. There is also a designate three-week intersession in January for intensive courses. Classes ordinarily meet on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays or on Tuesdays and Thursdays.

Definitions of Terms


A group of faculty headed by a chair, engaged in teaching a particular field or discipline; for example, chemistry, English, or education. Most departments offer at least one major that, in many but not in all cases, is also offered as a minor. Sometimes a department includes several distinct but closely related disciplines; the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. In such cases, the department may offer a major and a minor in each of its components.


Programs, headed by a director, differ from departments in that they are usually interdisciplinary. They are composed of faculty drawn from several departments who are engaged in the study of a broad field combining a number of disciplines; for example, American studies, international and intercultural studies, individualized interdisciplinary major or women’s studies. Program may offer both majors and minors.


Departments or program may offer, in a given major, one or more concentrations. A concentration represents an emphasis or focus on a particular aspect of the major discipline, such as studio art (as opposed to art history) within the art major. Interdisciplinary concentrations (such as prelaw studies or arts administration) may be elected by students in several majors for which the concentration is appropriate. A student wishing to focus on a field not related to his or her major may be able to elect it as a minor.

Goucher II Program

The Goucher II program is a re-entry program for adults who wish to complete or begin their undergraduate studies at Goucher College. Prospective students are eligible for Goucher II if they have independent status as defined by the Higher Education Act of 1992 (at least 24 years of age, or a veteran, or married, or with legal dependents other than a spouse). This flexible daytime program is for those who wish to study either part- or full-time and emphasizes the development of a strong foundation in a wide range of basic academic skills.

Goucher II students learn in a supportive environment marked by small classes and close personal attention from faculty. Goucher’s internship program provides students with practical experience that helps them to change a career or begin a new one.

The college accepts up to 60 credit hours for courses completed at other accredited two- and four-year institutions in which at least a grade of C was earned. Course credit may be transferred regardless of when the courses were taken, but must be relevant to the Goucher curriculum to be accepted. Part-time Goucher II students are automatically granted a scholar’s award that substantially reduces the cost of tuition, and financial aid is available for eligible full-time students.

Robert A. Welch Center for Graduate and Professional Studies Center


The Robert S. Welch Center for Graduate and Professional Studies provides adults with opportunities to prepare for a degree, career change, professional advancement, and enrichment. Courses are offered for credit. The center offers seven master’s degree programs, including programs offered in limited-residency, distance-learning formats.

Graduate Distance-Learning Degree Programs

We understand that you need a master’s program that is geared to your livelihood—and your life. Goucher College’s distance education format is simple, convenient, and extremely effective. We pioneered the limited-residency master’s degree to give working professionals a graduate education that will inform and engage them and strengthen their abilities to address the complex and ever-changing professional world.

Throughout the course of the academic year, our faculty maintains close contact with students through online, interactive classrooms, as well as other forms of written and verbal communication. And during the residency, our faculty meets face to face with students during intensive sessions on Goucher’s beautiful campus. Our limited-residency structure means that wherever you are, you’ll have the attention of top professionals from around the nation. You’ll address real-world issues that directly affect your community and your discipline. You’ll form friendships and professional relationships that will be invaluable throughout your career. And you’ll graduate with an advanced degree that will enhance your ability to make a lasting contribution to the world.

For more information, an application, or program catalogues, please contact the Robert S. Welch Center for Graduate and Professional Studies at 410-337-6200 or 1-800-697-4646; fax: 410-337-6085.

Master of Arts in Arts Administration

The Master of Arts in arts administration provides working arts professionals with the opportunity to study with others who are actively engaged in all areas of arts administration and management—theatre, dance, music, visual and public arts, museums, arts councils, philanthropy, cultural policy, arts education, arts funding, and community development. Students enhance their skills and develop practical knowledge while continuing to work full-time from an office, on the road, backstage, or in another country.

Students begin the program by meeting faculty mentors and other students face to face in an invigorating two-week summer residency. Continued online study provides small classes and unprecedented personal attention from national arts leaders. Visit www.goucher.edu/MAAA.

Master of Arts in Cultural Sustainability

Bringing together knowledge from anthropology, history, folklore, ethnomusicology, advocacy, environmental sociology, activism, social justice, communications, professional management, linguistics, history, and entrepreneurship, our master’s in cultural sustainability teaches students how to effect positive, community-driven change in the cultures they care about most—whether it be an African village, an American inner-city neighborhood, a remote tribe in Asia, or a threatened public space just down the street. The program is designed around two one-week residencies a year followed by online programming involving close work with faculty and peers in small groups. The program culminates with an intensive capstone experience. Visit www.goucher.edu/culture.

Master of Arts in Historic Preservation

The Master of Arts in historic preservation is a distance-learning program for adults with two or more years of post-baccalaureate work experience in any field. The curriculum addresses current issues in preservation as well as traditional skills and knowledge. While the degree is pursued primarily on a distance-learning basis, students will also spend a maximum of two weeks in residence on campus each summer. Students create tailored, individual programs of study to meet their professional or personal goals. Faculty are drawn from nationally known professionals and academics in the field. Visit www.goucher.edu/MAHP.

Master of Fine Arts in Creative Nonfiction

Our nationally recognized M.F.A. in creative nonfiction helps students develop their skills as nonfiction writers under the close supervision of a faculty mentor. The program’s faculty members include some of the most respected writers in the genre, who have excelled in the teaching of creative nonfiction and can work with a wide range of student interests. What distinguishes Goucher’s M.F.A. from other graduate creative writing programs, including those that take advantage of the limited-residency format, is its exclusive focus on a single genre. The program is also distinguished by its strong professional focus on writing and publishing. Toward that end, students make regular trips to New York to meet with editors and agents in the publishing world. The program is normally completed in two years and includes four semesters of off-campus work, two two-week summer residencies in Baltimore, two spring weekend mini-residencies, an internship, and a final five-day graduation residency. Balancing original writing with critical reading, it provides instruction in narrative nonfiction, the personal essay, memoir, literary journalism, travel/nature/science writing, and biography/profiles. The summer residencies include lectures, writing workshops, panel discussions, and faculty/student readings. Visit www.goucher.edu/MFA.

Master of Arts in Digital Arts

The mission of the Master of Arts in Digital Arts program is to foster a culture of collaborative, business savvy artistry while exploring the creative component of emerging digital technologies and practice.  The program is designed around two one-week residencies a year followed by online programming involving close work with faculty and peers in small groups.  Students from different backgrounds come to Goucher to broaden their range of expertise and become multimedia savvy.  Professional digital artists and passionate scholars help students develop a professional portfolio and networking skills to succeed.  The program culminates with an intensive capstone experience.  Visit www.goucher.edu/MADArts.

Financial Aid

Students may apply for graduate-level Subsidized and/or Unsubsidized Stafford Loans or Graduate PLUS loans. Please review the loans section of our financial aid website for details. The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is required to be considered for these programs. A limited number of scholarships are also available.


Graduate Programs in Education

Master of Arts in Teaching

This certification program is designed to prepare college graduates with strong liberal arts backgrounds who wish to enter the teaching profession but who have not had adequate preparation for teaching. The program is based on the assumption that, through a curriculum carefully balanced between theory and practice, participants can acquire the knowledge and skills needed to teach elementary, secondary, or special education. Students complete the program with a yearlong internship guided both by a member of the Goucher faculty and for traditional interns, by a selected, well-qualified cooperating teacher. For more information, please refer to the Graduate Programs in Education catalogue. Inquiries should be directed to Graduate Programs in Education, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, Maryland 21204-2794, 410-337-6047.

Master of Education

Goucher College offers a master of education degree developed in collaboration with the Sheppard Pratt Health System Inc. With a curriculum specifically designed to integrate theoretical with practical course work, the M.Ed. program is currently divided into nine areas of specialization: athletic program leadership and administration, at-risk and diverse learners, middle school (available only through cohort program), Montessori studies, reading instruction, school improvement leadership, school mediation (in redevelopment) and teacher as leader in technology. Each program component addresses the societal forces that have an impact on student development and success, social and ethical issues, curricular and management strategies, and relevant research. Whenever possible, a clinical perspective is offered. For more information, please refer to the Graduate Programs in Education catalogue. Inquiries should be directed to Graduate Programs in Education, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, Maryland 21204-2794, 410-337-6047.

Professional Development Certificate Program

Advanced graduate work may be pursued beyond the master’s degree to receive a professional development certificate. Applicants are required to have completed a master’s degree in education or a closely related field from a regionally accredited institution of higher education. Certificates are offered in eight of the areas of specialization listed in the Master of Education program.

Teachers’ Institute

The Teachers’ Institute provides graduate courses for teachers and professional school personnel. Courses are designed to help teachers meet state certification requirements and study subjects of current need and interest. Teachers must have a bachelor’s degree to take any of the graduate courses offered in the Teachers’ Institute.

Advanced Placement Summer Institute

The Teachers’ Institute, in association with the Middle States Regional Office of the College Board, offers week-long summer courses intended for both future and current Advanced Placement (AP) teachers to prepare for their AP courses and share best teaching practices with colleagues in a retreat-like setting. All instructors are experienced AP teachers in their field and are current readers of the AP exam.


Post-Baccalaureate Premedical Program

The one-year Post-Baccalaureate Premedical Program is a nondegree program designed for men and women who have completed a bachelor’s degree but lack the required science courses for entrance to medical school. Students typically take eight courses in the sciences and receive a certificate upon completion of the program. Prior to the start of the program in June, an optional intensive mathematics course is offered at no extra cost. Individual tutoring is provided throughout the program by a full-time teaching assistant, who also conducts homework sessions and exam reviews. Beginning in the fall, students prepare for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) through weekly study sessions; this continues in the spring with more frequent sessions and numerous practice MCAT’s. Workshops are offered on many topics, including essay writing and interviewing skills. In addition, students receive extensive counseling during the medical school application process and a composite letter of evaluation from the pre-medical committee at Goucher. During the fall and in January, between the first and and spring semesters, students have the opportunity to acquire clinical exposure by volunteering in a hospital or clinic.


Candidates for the Post-Baccalaureate Premedical Program are selected on a rolling admission basis starting in September. An interview is required of competitive candidates after all application materials are received. A completed application consists of the following:

  • Application form, including a personal statement, and nonrefundable application fee.
  • Official transcripts from all high schools, undergrauduate colleges, and graduate schools attended.
  • Scores from the SAT, ACT, or GRE.
  • Two letters of recommendation.


Information concerning tuition and expenses can be obtained from the Post-Baccalaureate Premedical Program website. The tuition fee includes workshops, MCAT preparation, tutoring provided by the teaching assistant, lectures, and laboratory fees for the eight courses and a mathematics review (offered in the summer before the start of the program). Books and incidental fees are not included.

Financial Aid

Students may apply for undergraduate-level subsidized and/or unsubsidized Stafford loans by completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The program awards several merit scholarships; all applicants are considered for these, and there is no separate application.


Director- Betsy Meredith

Assistant Director - Toni St. John

Professors - George Delahunty (biological sciences), Ali Bakhshai (physics)

Assistant Professors - George Greco (chemistry), Kevin Schultz (chemistry), Ruquia Ahmed-Schofield (chemistry), Pam Douglass (chemistry), Hank Ratrie (biological sciences)

Laboratory Instructors - Jacqueline Andrews (biological sciences)



Qualified students with the approval of the premedical adviser may substitute upper-level science courses for the core courses listed below. If a student has successfully completed for credit one or more equivalent courses elsewhere, the premedical adviser may waive the course and require an approved non-science substitute course if no science or mathematics course is available.

Preference is given to Post-Baccalaureate Premedical students for the following courses:

BIO 147/BIO 547  GENERAL BIOLOGY I (5 Cr.) - Not open to students completing BIO 104/105 or equivalent. Permission of instructor required.

BIO 148/BIO548  GENERAL BIOLOGY II (5 Cr.) - Not open to students completing BIO 104/105 or equivalent. Permission of instructor required.

CHE 140/CHE 540  PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY I (4 Cr.) - Permission of instructor required.

CHE 141/CHE 541  PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY II (4 Cr.) - Permission of instructor required.

CHE 236/CHE 636  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I (4 Cr.) - Permission of instructor required.

CHE 237/CHE 637  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (4 Cr.) - Permission of instructor required.

PHY 142/PHY 542  PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS I(4 Cr.) - Premission of instructor required.

PHY 143/PHY 543  PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS II (4 Cr.) - Permission of instructor required.